Welcome to the LED Database

Access to the database is open to anybody, although requires prior registration of the user.
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Terms of use

Privacy policy

This privacy policy sets out how IIASA uses and protects any information that you give IIASA when you use this database. IIASA is committed to ensuring that your privacy is protected. Should we ask you to provide certain information by which you can be identified when using this website, then you can be assured that it will only be used in accordance with this privacy statement. IIASA may change this policy from time to time by updating this page. You should check this page from time to time to ensure that you are happy with any changes. IIASA collects the following information:

  • E-mail address
We require this information to understand your needs and provide you with a better service, and in particular for the following reasons:
  • Internal record keeping
  • To notify you once a dataset update is available.
We are committed to ensuring that your information is secure. In order to prevent unauthorized access or disclosure, we have put in place suitable physical, electronic and managerial procedures to safeguard and secure the information we collect online.


The content of the LED database and any derived analysis may only be used for non-commercial scientific publications, articles, educational purposes, figures and data tables provided that the source reference pursuant to section ‘Required citation’ is included and all relevant publications are correctly cited. Partial reproductions of the database content may be stored in online repositories, if this is necessary to comply with a journal's data archiving and access requirements. Such reproductions must be limited to the scope of the manuscript in question, and must include a hyperlink to the source database hosted at https://db1.ene.iiasa.ac.at/LEDDB and the download date from the source database.
However, any wholesale duplication, translation, reworking, processing, arrangement, transformation, or reproduction through the internet or any other channels, of the https://db1.ene.iiasa.ac.at/LEDDEB for commercial or non-commercial purposes is not permitted without the explicit written approval of IIASA.

Required citation

Any source reference to this LED database should read as follows:
“This [figure/table/article/...] is based on the LED database jointly hosted by the IIASA Energy and Transitiong to New Technologies Programs at https://db1.ene.iiasa.ac.at/LEDDB. The underlying scientific data was published in Nature Energy (Grubler et al. 2018)”. Any citations of publications made available through this and related publications are to be made in accordance with best scientific practice.


With respect to information available from this website, neither IIASA nor any of its employees make any warranty, expressed or implied, including warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose, nor does IIASA assume any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, product, or process disclosed.
The software is provided on an 'as is' basis and IIASA disclaims all liability of any kind arising out of the use, or inability to use, the databases and all information and data contained within them. Parts of the website or the underlying database might be extended, changed or partly or completely deleted by IIASA without further announcement.
Views or opinions expressed on this website do not necessarily represent those of IIASA, its National Member Organizations, or other supporting in

Referrals and links

This website may contain opinions and statements from external websites. Hyperlinks to non-IIASA Internet sites do not imply any official endorsem or responsibility for, the opinions, ideas, data or products presented at these locations nor guarantee the validity of the information provided. The sole purpose of links to other sites is to indicate further information available on related topics.

Responsible for this page: LED Database Webmaster